Distances in the universe

How far can we look into the universe? Parallax of a number of stars gets us to a distance of about 300 light years, but most stars seem to be further away. Comparing the brightness of similar stars could help us to see further (but this method has assumptions). But most stars seem to be further away.


Redshift and how to explain the phenomenon

The light stars emit can be analysed. Many stars show what is called redshift: the frequency of the light is less than it should be (towards the red in the spectrum). Some stars show blueshift (a higher frequency than expected). Redshift can be explained in a number of ways:

  1. Caused by the Doppler effect: most stars flee away from us. This lead to the Big Bang theory: the universe came into existence by a Big Bang, an enormous explosion resulting in matter, galaxies, stars and planets being formed over time. The theory is very popular, but still has the problem we cannot find most of the (dark) mass and the (dark) energy there should be in this model of the universe.
  2. Light looses energy traveling over long distances causing lower frequencies: the tired light hypothesis. This leaves open how the universe came into existence.
  3. Gravity can also slow down light, stretching it out, lowering the frequency.
  4. The speed of light has diminished over time, having reached the current constant speed only recently. This points to a relative young universe.


Two Genesis models

If God created the universe we cannot know much about the beginning because all natural laws do not apply to that beginning. Some polyphyletic scientists support the Big Bang because that way creation has a real start. Every model available has serious problems to overcome. Maybe we just cannot know ...

Two totally different solutions have been proposed to deal with the high ages the most distant stars seem to have - and still stick to a young Earth (what the Bible seems to teach)h: the Plasma model of Setterfield and the Stretched Universe model of Humphreys (based on Einstein's relativity theories).


The Plasma model of Setterfield

Calculations about a possibly decreasing speed of light show it could have been infinite about 6000-10.000 years ago (consistent with the Biblical record). The speed of light also influences radiometric dating.

The model proposed by Setterfield is intruiging and should be compared to the Big Bang model. One important part of the model of Setterfield is the way it explains the formation of Galaxies and our own solar system: it can be done by plasma. The text below to the right contains quotes from his own site (link nr. 4).

The plasma model by Barry Setterfield

Perhaps it’s because it is gravity that keeps the moon going around the earth, and the earth and all the planets going around the sun. But whatever the original reason, the standard model for the universe and the galaxies and stars is based on the force of gravity. Gravity certainly exists! We can see the effects of it everyday. But, all things considered, gravity is a very weak force. You defy it every time you lift something up.

And because gravity is such a weak force, scientists cannot figure out how galaxies came together. They cannot give an explanation for the first stars forming. The fact that the outer sections of the spiral arms of galaxies spin around the center as fast as the inner sections of the spiral arms do is something they cannot deal with without figuring that the vast majority of the universe must be made up of dark matter. Dark matter is stuff we cannot see. We never have seen it. We have never found it in any form using any instruments. But it must be there for gravity to work, forming and keeping the universe in the way that it is. To the imaginary dark matter has been added dark energy and dark force, all necessary to support the gravitational model.

We all know the common three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. Generally a solid when heated will go to a liquid state and then a gas state. But heat up that gas enough and electrons can be stripped off the atoms. When this happens, you have a plasma. Plasmas exist in three modes: dark, glow, and arc. We cannot see plasma in the dark mode. Our earth, and all the planets are surrounded by giant plasma spheres. A plasma in glow mode is what you see in neon lights. These plasmas are produced by electrically stripping electrons off the atoms instead of using heat. Plasma in arc mode can be seen in lightning or an arc welding torch.

When we work with small plasma filaments in the lab, some interesting things happen. When two of them approach each other, they start to interact. This interaction has been filmed and what we see is that just two filaments end up producing every structure we see in outer space, quickly and efficiently. No gravity needed. See the stills of the progress above. In these pictures we are looking down on the two filaments as they start interacting.


  1. Wikipedia on parallax, on cepheiden and Redshift
  2. Wikipedia on a critic of redshift: Halton Arp
  3. About Black holes
  4. About the model of Setterfield
  5. About the model of Humphreys (first article in a series of three)
  6. About Russel Humphreys with links to articles
  7. About: Planck data and the Big Bang
  8. Impact of gravitational waves on creation models
  9. Articles about astronomy
  10. For more Dutch links go to: 'heelal'


The model of Humphreys

In our experience time equals distance divided by speed. Einstein’s General Relativity theory suggests time can be distorted by gravity- some observations support that idea.

Russel Humphreys uses Einstein’s equations. He assumes the universe has a centre and that the Earth is close to this centre - which is supported by our observations and cannot be refuted by science.

Redshift bands suggest our Milky Way is grouped in concentric circles around this centre. Expansion of the universe in the past can be deduced from observations and is supported by Genesis 1:7, Isaiah 40:22+28, 42:5, 45:12, Jeremiah 10:12 and Zacharia 12:1.

If the universe has been stretched out in a short time from a limited universe, calculations using Einstein’s equations suggest gravity caused an impressive expansion of the universe. Observers on Earth would have noticed a much higher light speed and rotation of galaxies. But within these galaxies the speed of light would have seemed ‘normal’, just like their speed of rotation. From a point far into space the time on Earth would have seemed to stand still, but you wouldn’t have noticed that on Earth.

So if God stretched out space very fast, clocks on on Earth (close to the centre of the universe) would tick very slowly compared to clocks in galaxies further away in the expanding universe.

This seems a somewhat mind-boggling theory, but for theoretical physicists it's piece of cake ...

For more on this model use link nr. 5: you will find more links at the bottom of this first article.

Origin of the universe